Monday, November 18, 2019
Write 4 page - Research Paper Example The number of Arabs immigrants has rapidly grown due to the changes in the United States laws and the increased political and economic hardships in Middle East countries. Arabs Americans are the fastest growing minorities in America. The Arabs who first arrived in United Stated were comparatively homogenous groups of persons. Most of the Arabs immigrants were Christians from Lebanon and Syria. Most of them came from remote areas where they had limited access to formal education. The recent Arabs immigrants tend to be more diversified in terms of their educational achievement, religious background, and terms of their country of origin (Short 300). Arabs Americans are almost in every state, although they are more likely to be located at one place such as Chicago, New York, San Francisco, Detroit, Los Angeles, and Boston. The cities have large neighborhoods of Arabs Americans communities and have Arabic grocery stores, restaurants, and other businesses. The largest Arab Americans neighborhood is found Dearborn, Michigan. Arab Americans have become one of the most diverse groups of people in United States. Around 50 percent are Christians while the other 50 percent are Muslims. Some of the Arab immigrants trace their roots in African nations while others trace their origin in Asian countries. Some Arab Americans are born in America with their parents and grandparents born in United States making these Arabs have the little knowledge of the Arabic language. Others have immigrated to United States recently and therefore they are fluent in Arabic and can speak a bit of English. Arab Americans are also diversified in terms of income and jobs. Some are professional lawyers and doctors while others work in farms and factories. Many Arab Americans are a business owner of large enterprises. Some Arab women work as homemakers while others are found in all kinds of professions. Research shows that Arab Americans have better education level compared to average American
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Lossless predictive coding Objective of the project Generating Huffman codeword using Huffman Coding to be transmitted to the decoder. Compare and analyze quality of 7 linear, fixed different Differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) predictors to find out which one achieves the best compression ratio. Compare and derive the compressed image against the original image to ensure our result has lossless compression. Introduction As we know, there is strong correlation or connection between spatially adjacent pixels. The aim of the predictive coding is to remove redundancy between consecutive pixels to facilitate the encoding of only the residual portion between actual and predicated (only new information). In other way, a pixel is coded as the difference between its actual value and a predicted value, which was computed from previously decoded values. As a result of that, compression ratio depends on the variance of the image, level of quantization of the difference values and quality of the prediction. After predictive coding, we can start to compress the original file size by using Differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) encoding and make a Huffman entropy codebook before transmitting the image. The decoder uses the Huffman codebook to first decode the Huffman entropy and followed by decoding Differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) to derive the constructed image.. Experimental result Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) Encoding Encode original Lena512.pgm image to DPCM values using 7 linear and fixed different Predictor methods: A (A + C)/2 (A + B + C)/3 A+B-C A+(B-C)/2 B+(A-C)/2 (A+B)/2 According to 7 above formulas, we can compute the difference between the previous pixel and current one. The predictor code table result will be sent to the next step, entropy encoder. The results show that the DPCM predictor B + (A -C)/2 achieves the best compression Ratio Entropy encoder (Huffman coding): Below part shows how the approach of Huffman coding is generated: Step 1: Retrieve the output of DPCM encoding. Step 2: Each value from DPCM encoding will be generated according to each occurrence probability in descending order. Step 3: Assign the Huffman codeword for each computed probability value For example: Each child probabilities is added to create the parent. The adding of probabilities continues until the root with final probability 1.0 as shown above. Hence, the Huffman Coding Table is formed. A bit is assigned to every node. The 0 bit is assigned to every left sub-tree of every node and the 1 bit is assigned to every right sub-tree of every node. Average length per symbol = 10.6+20.2+30.1+30.1= 1.6 bits/symbol In our experiment, since the optimal predictor is B + (A -C)/2, the codebook is generated according to this predictor. The DPCM values ranges from [-75, 87]. The table below shows the first 8 values among 162 DPCM values in Huffman codebook. RESULT DISCUSSIONS: (Optimal Predictor B + (A -C)/2, Encoding Part) Average bit/pixel=Compressed Size (Bits) / (columns x rows) =Compressed Size/ (512 x 512) After generating 162 codewords we are able to achieve 902428 bits. The derived average bit/pixel is approximately 3.442 bits/pixel. Compression Ratio= Original image size / Compressed image size Compression Ratio= 8 bits / (Average bit/pixel) (image resolution: 8 bits per pixel) The original image (Lena512.pgm picture) is a fixed 8 bits/pixel. Therefore, the compression ratio is 8/3.442=2.3239 by using Huffman codes. In order to write a file into binary bit format, the 8 binary adjacent bits is read and converted an integer. For Huffman decoding, the integers are written into a file. Entropy decoder (Huffman Decoding): The Huffman decoder uses the compressed image to regenerate the DPCM table. The compressed file integers are read and converted into a set of binary bits. If the binary code is not a prefix of any code, read each and every bit in the codebook to find a match. If no match is found, continue the search till a match is found in the codebook. Retreive the corresponding DPCM value for the binary code set. Step 2 is repeated until the binary set is exhausted. A DPCM table is generated and this is called the DPCM decoding process. For example: After converting integers into a set of binary bits, we have encoded bit stream of the first few pixels: 110111001101110011011101 According to Huffman lookup table, the corresponding DPCM values are: 87 87 86 DPCM Decoding: After decoding DPCM, the reconstructed image is retrieved. According to the above images, it can be concluded that the compression is a lossless one. There is no difference between original image and compressed one, as above images shown in reality or DPCM values encoded and decoded in theory. Project Discussion Analyzing Different Predictors for Lena.pgm Through above diagram, we can see the compression ratio of using one neighboring pixel (Predictor 1: A) for prediction is lower than using two or three neighboring pixels. And predictors which use 2 neighboring pixels have lower compression ratio than ones with 3 neighboring pixels Analyzing Different Predictors for other images: To further evaluate performance of the predictors, 4 different images were chosen to compute the effects the performance of the predictors. From the above diagrams, compression ratio of methods from 3 to 6 (They are: (A + B + C)/3, A+B-C, A+ (B-C)/2, B+ (A-C)/2 ) is higher than the rest. As there is strong connection between adjacent pixels, any predictor which can utilize connection between adjacent pixels produces good compression ratio As a result of that, the methods which use 1 or 2 neighboring pixels can not utilize this connection well. For example: Predictor A is used (only 1 pixel is used) for the first method. The encoded values are dependent on the previous value of the same row. Thus, the first columns values cannot be predicted or this predictor does not use connection between neighboring pixels appropriately. On the other hand, the images that fall at the center region have a lower compression ratio than ones which spreads over the entire white-grey-black scale.. Since the conducted experiments pertain only on .pgm format images (Black-And-White image), it is unable to determine compression ratio of colored images (RGB, YCbCr, HSV color bases) Conclusion According to all above experiments and diagrams, we can assert that there is no one definite predictor for every image to achieve best compression ratio because different images need different predictors to achieve better compression results. In general, since there is strong correlation between spatially adjacent pixels, any predictor which can utilize connection between adjacent pixels produces good compression ratio. In our experiment compression method from 3 to 6 will produce better compression than the rest. In reality, Static Huffman Coding is popular and easy to implement but does not obtain theoretically optimum number of bits to encode symbols because of condition: Huffman codeword must be an integer number of bits long, e.g. if probability of 1 symbol is 0.9, the optimum code word size should be 0.15 bits but in Huffman Coding, it is 1 bit. Moreover, if symbol probabilities are unknown or not stable (source changes), Dynamic Huffman coding should be chosen but the implementation is very complicated. On the other hand, so as to achieve non-integer length coding and probability derived in real-time, Arithmetic coding is a good alternative. However, the implementation of Arithmetic coding is slow due to many multiplications (in some cases, divisions).
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The higher the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate the faster the :: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation
The higher the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate the faster the reaction of the two liquids. Information. According to the kinetic theory all matter is made up of tiny, invisible particles that move all the time. When the temperature is increased around or on these particles, the faster they move. Heavier particles move more slowly than light ones at a given temperature. This theory defines the differences between solids liquids and gasses; in a gas the particles move freely and at random in all the space available, in solids particles only vibrate around fixed positions and in liquids the particles have some freedom and can move around each other. Using the kinetic theory we can explain changes in the state of substances as they are heated and cooled. We can also explain dissolving and diffusion using the kinetic theory. The kinetic theory says that gases diffuse to fill up the space around them. This explains how the smell of cooking can be smelt all over the house after a short period of time. It's not only gases that diffuse, diffusion occurs in liquids too. Diffusion involves the movement of particles from a region of higher concentration towards a region of lower concentration. The kinetic theory can be used to explain the factors affecting the rates of reaction, this is an extension to the kinetic theory called the collision theory. The collision theory says that Chemical reactions occur when particles of the reactants collide. They must collide with a certain minimum energy, called the activation energy. To summarise, the requirements for an effective collision (for a chemical reaction to occur): The reactants must collide with each other, The molecules must have sufficient energy to initiate the reaction (called activation energy). Planning This experiment is to discover what affects rate of reaction. In this experiment there are two solutions used, Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid. (Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric Acid) (Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2HCl (aq) In this reaction, a fine precipitate of sulphur slowly forms, to measure the rate of reaction, we time how long it takes to form the precipitate. Five of the most common ways to influence the rate of reaction can be explained using collision theory. They are: changing the nature of the reactants, changing the concentration of one or more of the reactants, changing the temperature at which a reaction is performed, changing the surface area of a solid reactant, adding a catalyst. I have chosen to study how the rate of reaction changes when the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate is varied. Before we could conduct the experiment there was some preliminary work to be done. This was to find out what amount of each liquid would be
Monday, November 11, 2019
Monkey: Journey to the West is a story of an adventure for enlightenment to India in order to find ancient Buddhist scriptures. The story consists of Chinese legends, tales, and superstitions. Daoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism play a huge role throughout this story. Monkey: Journey to the West is a story that discusses religion, and moral issues. The monkey acts the way he does due to underlying religious themes played throughout the story. At first understanding why the Monkey acts the way he does may seem difficult. However, after reading deeper through the story one learns that social satire in the Monkey is what gives him his rebellious personality. The end of the story reveals the hidden spiritual meaning behind the monkeys change in actions. Monkey: Journey to the West is told in three major parts. The first being the monkeys early life history and spirit, and the second about Tripitakas family and history before leaving to obtain the religious Buddhist scriptures. The remaini ng section has to do with his three animal spirit disciples, monkey, pig, and a fish. The story of the Monkey shows the struggles of educating oneself on a spiritual path. The characters are representations of religious figures in Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism. The Monkey represents restlessness and powerful energy, which has to be under control before the journey to the religious scriptures can start. After a while he becomes worried about the thought of death and reincarnation. Buddhists believe in cycle of birth, life and death in order to achieve what they call Nirvana. One must release their self desire in order to obtain the ultimate goal. The Monkey desires to be immortal, however Confucianism recognizes death to be one of the most important times in ones life. Monkey decides that he must explore the ends of the world in order to find a way to get around death and reincarnation because he is not happy with the ways on the three religions. His journey leads him across oceans and over mountains to the Cave of the Slanting Moon where the immortal Patriarch lives. Monkey decides to become a student of the Patriarch in order to gain his knowledge on becoming immortal. Monkey abuses the situation and he is let go by the patriarch due to his extremist actions. When Monkey learns ways of being immortal he returns home and he is more greedy than ever. Greed is looked down upon in Buddhism, Confuscism, and Taoism. Monkey then continues his journey to the dragons and takes their treasures in an ungrateful manner. He uses immoral and threatening actionsÃ to obtain his goals, which are clearly looked down upon. At this time the Monkey is beginning to upset a lot of people, and even the Jade Emperor of Heaven is becoming upset. Monkey totally disgregards everyones feelings and continues to act in such a rude and immoral manner. Monkey still has a desire for more so he eats the immortal fruits, drinks the immortal wine, and he even takes Lao TzuÃ¢â¬â¢s special pills. At this point heaven is becoming even more angry over the Monkeys actions. The Monkey returns home and Heaven implements another attack on him. This attack was successful, Heaven defeated the monkey with the help of Buddha and Lao Tzu. In conclusion Monkey is imprisoned for 500 years. At the end of they story the Monkey has a huge change in mind set due to some help.. The Monkey changes when Hsuang-tsang gives him a second chance to prove himself. Hsuang-tsang stays within the same morals and values of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. The qualities of forgivenes are in each path to reaching great peace. Monkey realizes the way he acted before being imprisoned was not suitable for his pilgrimage he set out on. Monkey becomes a student of Hsuang-tsang and joins his journey to India. The Buddha shows the Monkey. He explains to him how his spiritual mind has opened his inner soul to help interpret and accept forgiveness from others. Thus, helping Monkey reach his own spiritual purpose.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Should Human Cloning Be Permitted? For years, part of the American public, and humans in general, have been fascinated with the possibility of creating human life by other than natural means. There are many who strongly disagree with the idea of human cloning. It certainly wasn't surprising when they were able to clone a sheep and will not be the least surprised if someday scientist's will be able to clone a human being. Should cloning for human benefits or even human cloning itself be allowed in society today? That is a question we must ask ourselves? On one side of the issue are those who believe that human cloning should be permitted. One thing that shows this, is what human cloning research may bring. Those who opposed to a ban believe that human cloning research could bring substantial benefits, including the development of new treatments for cystic fibrosis, other diseases and the ability to create animal with normal compatible organs for transplant. (1."Should Congress Prohibi t All Human Cloning Experimentation",Pg 34). From my opinion, I believe that human cloning is just a huge step towards negativism in human life's, rather than simply being the next step in fertility technology. There might be a possibility that human cloning research may result in the discovery of a cure for diseases and the growing of human organs, but the disadvantages are that many years as well as money may be need it. Also several experts told the committee that cloning might be the only chance for many infertile couples to have their own genetically related children.(2.Gorman,Pg66). For what I see these cases are rarely seen, and the little amount of couples who suffer of infertility are more likely to adopt a child. Infertility, is not the cause. This is not the main reason why scientists are coming up with the idea of human cloning. What I believe is that scientists are just making propaganda in order to make the public to get on their side. Another ... Free Essays on Clone Free Essays on Clone Should Human Cloning Be Permitted? For years, part of the American public, and humans in general, have been fascinated with the possibility of creating human life by other than natural means. There are many who strongly disagree with the idea of human cloning. It certainly wasn't surprising when they were able to clone a sheep and will not be the least surprised if someday scientist's will be able to clone a human being. Should cloning for human benefits or even human cloning itself be allowed in society today? That is a question we must ask ourselves? On one side of the issue are those who believe that human cloning should be permitted. One thing that shows this, is what human cloning research may bring. Those who opposed to a ban believe that human cloning research could bring substantial benefits, including the development of new treatments for cystic fibrosis, other diseases and the ability to create animal with normal compatible organs for transplant. (1."Should Congress Prohibi t All Human Cloning Experimentation",Pg 34). From my opinion, I believe that human cloning is just a huge step towards negativism in human life's, rather than simply being the next step in fertility technology. There might be a possibility that human cloning research may result in the discovery of a cure for diseases and the growing of human organs, but the disadvantages are that many years as well as money may be need it. Also several experts told the committee that cloning might be the only chance for many infertile couples to have their own genetically related children.(2.Gorman,Pg66). For what I see these cases are rarely seen, and the little amount of couples who suffer of infertility are more likely to adopt a child. Infertility, is not the cause. This is not the main reason why scientists are coming up with the idea of human cloning. What I believe is that scientists are just making propaganda in order to make the public to get on their side. Another ...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Diana essays The life of Lady Diana, Princess of Wales, continues to inspire the world today. Ever since she was a child, Diana put smiles on peoples faces. As she grew older, began dating Prince Charles, celebrated her highly publicized wedding and participated in royal duties as part of the British monarchy, Diana always seemed to make everyone have a better outlook on themselves. Even in death, she continues to be a positive influence on people everywhere. Princess Diana was born on July 1, 1961 at Park House, to Edward John and Frances Spencer, her proud parents. Dianas parents had the royal titles of Viscount and Viscountess Althrop. Her own title was the Honorable Diana Frances Spencer. They were an extremely noble family. Diana had two sisters, Sarah and Jane, and a brother named Charles (Diana as a Child Internet). She always did things her own way, yet she was a delightful child. She was taught to have extremely good manners and to be on her best behavior at all times (Darling 10-11). Dianas father worked for Queen Elizabeth and the two families (the Spencers and the Windsors) would spend time at the Sandringham house. The children would play together and swim all day long (Darling 12-13 ) Diana was an intelligent child. She attended the prep school, Riddlesworth Hall in Diss, Norfolk. In 1974, Diana was sent to a boarding school called West Heath, near Sevenoaks, Kent. While studying there, Diana became an accomplished pianist and received many awards. In 1977, she was sent to finishing school at the Institute of Alpine Videmantte in Rougemont, Switzerland (Diana as a Child Internet). Despite of all the finishing schools Diana was sent to, she still enjoyed sports. Diana really liked swimming, tennis, and netball. Diana also had a love for dancing, and often said that she was obsessed with the ballet (Darling 18). At the age of sixteen, Diana had never been on an airplane, so that December...
Monday, November 4, 2019
Land Law - Essay Example This paper will analyze a case scenario which involves situations of easement rights, mortgage laws, and restrictive easements. Easement rights In English law, easement is an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right over anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s land. In other words, Ã¢â¬Å"an easement is a right over one piece of land existing for the benefit of another piece of landÃ¢â¬ (plainlaw solicitors). The common easement rights recognised include the right to use way/driveway or light, the right to park a car on neighbourÃ¢â¬â¢s land, or even to use a neighbourÃ¢â¬â¢s lavatory. Some recent findings of the Law Commission indicate that at least 65% of registered freehold titles are subjected to easement rights (Law Commission & Ministry of Justice 2011). Although people have extensive easement rights under English law, land owners are not allowed to access a public highway without an easement right under certain circumstances. In order to claim an easement right successfully, the claim must meet the requirem ents of the common law definition. Danckwerts J in Re Ellenborough Park (1956) set forth four essential characteristics of an easement. The first essential feature of an easement is that Ã¢â¬Ëthere must be a dominant and a servient tenementÃ¢â¬â¢ (Bailey 2012, pp. 205-207). ... It is particularly important to note that a claim of easement cannot be justified if the dominant and servient tenement come under a common ownership. Fourth, Ã¢â¬Ëthe right claimed must be capable of forming the subject-matter of a grantÃ¢â¬â¢. It is the most complex characteristic of an easement and it must be definite and certain in its purpose (Ibid, pp. 205-207). Generally an easement is created in four different ways such as express grant or reservation, implied grant or reservation, prescription, and statute (NPC, n.d.). In most cases, easement rights are expressively created in a transfer document, and it is called easement creation by express grant or reservation. In case of creation of easements by implied grant or reservation, the right may be implied. The right to use way across the surrounding neighbourÃ¢â¬â¢s land to the public highway is an example of easement creation by implied grant/reservation. Sometimes an easement right will be created or granted following an open and unchallenged exercise for a long time. To illustrate, the right to use a way will be granted if the way has been uninterruptedly used for a long time (a minimum of 20 years). Finally, an easement right may be created by statute also. From the case scenario, it is clear that Anne sold a part of her land to Mike and Zara, who subsequently gained planning permission to convert an existing stable on the land. Here, it seems that Anne cannot prevent Mike and Zara from using the driveway that crosses her land because it is the only practical way to access the stable. The case context clearly says that the badly maintained country road is not a possible option for Mike and Zara. While analyzing the case, it is obvious that Mike and Zara